Elam, J. J., & Thomas, J. B. (1989). Evaluating productivity of information systems organisations in state government. Public Productivity Review, 12(3), 263–277.
Abstract: Measuring and improving the efficiency and effectiveness of information systems organizations (ISOs) are high-priority budget issues for state governments as well as key information systems issues. This article describes the comparative productivity approach (CPA) for measuring ISO productivity and presents the results of its application to ten state government data centers.