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Author Chang, S.-J.; Hsiao, H.-C.; Huang, L.-H.; Chang, H. doi  openurl
  Title Taiwan quality indicator project and hospital productivity growth Type
  Year 2011 Publication Omega Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 39 Issue 1 Pages 14-22  
  Keywords Taiwan Quality Indicator Project (TQIP); Malmquist productivity change index; Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA )  
  Abstract The Taiwan Quality Indicator Project (TQIP) is a quality management program that measures and monitors the healthcare quality of hospitals in Taiwan. This paper examines the impact of TQIP participation on hospital productivity growth with the application of the Malmquist productivity change index based on data envelopment analysis (DEA). Analyzing operations data from 31 TQIP regional hospitals over the period 1998-2004, we find that TQIP hospitals improved their productivity in the post-TQIP period. This improvement is attributable to quality change and relative efficiency progress. The simultaneous enhancement in both quality and relative efficiency coincides with the philosophy of total quality management (TQM) spirit, and confirms the efficiency improvement and quality assurance functions of TQIP.  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved  
  Call Number Admin @ admin @ ChangHsiaoHuangChang2011 Serial 4812  
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Author Chang, H.-H.; Chen, Y.-K. doi  openurl
  Title Neuro-genetic approach to optimize parameter design of dynamic multiresponse experiments Type
  Year 2011 Publication Applied Soft Computing Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 436-442  
  Keywords Taguchi method; Dynamic multiresponse; Exponential desirability functions; Experimental design; Genetic algorithms; Neural networks  
  Abstract Engineers have widely applied the Taguchi method, a traditional approach for robust experimental design, to a variety of quality engineering problems for enhancing system robustness. However, the Taguchi method is unable to deal with dynamic multiresponse owing to increasing complexity of the product or design process. Although several alternative approaches have been presented to resolve this problem, they cannot effectively treat situations in which the control factors have continuous values. This study incorporates desirability functions into a hybrid neural network/genetic algorithm approach to optimize the parameter design of dynamic multiresponse with continuous values of parameters. The objective is to find the optimal combination of control factors to simultaneously maximize robustness of each response. The proposed approach is based on three stages which (1) use neural networks for constructing a response function model of a dynamic multiresponse system, (2) use exponential desirability functions for evaluating overall performance of a specific factor combination, and (3) use a genetic algorithm to optimize parameter design. Effectiveness of the proposed approach is illustrated with a simulated example. Analysis results reveal that the approach has higher performance than the traditional experimental design.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Notes Approved  
  Call Number Admin @ admin @ ChangChen2011 Serial 4811  
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Author Chang, H.; Choy, H.L.; Cooper, W.W.; Ruefli, T.W. doi  openurl
  Title Using Malmquist Indexes to measure changes in the productivity and efficiency of US accounting firms before and after the Sarbanes-Oxley Act Type
  Year 2009 Publication Omega Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 37 Issue 5 Pages 951-960  
  Keywords Accounting firms; Productivity change; Efficiency change; Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA ); Malmquist index  
  Abstract There have been many criticisms of the Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) Act passed in July of 2002 to correct business accountability and performance practices. The act has a major emphasis on accounting and its practices. This paper attempts a response to these criticisms by investigating changes in productive efficiency for 62 of the largest US public accounting firms between the periods (2000-2001) and (2003-2004)-the periods before and after enactment of SOX in July of 2002. DEA is used to calculate Malmquist indexes of productivity and efficiency changes. This index is used because it can distinguish between changes in technical efficiency, which limit the possibilities, and changes in the performance efficiencies for each firm. Contrary to many of the criticisms, results indicate that accounting firms have exhibited significant post SOX growth in productive efficiency which is better than pre-SOX performances.  
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  Notes Approved  
  Call Number Admin @ admin @ ChangChoyCooperRuefli2009 Serial 4409  
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Author Chang, H.; Choy, H.L.; Cooper, W.W.; Parker, B.R.; Ruefli, T.W. doi  openurl
  Title Measuring productivity growth, technical progress, and efficiency changes of CPA firms prior to, and following the Sarbanes-Oxley Act Type
  Year 2009 Publication Socio-Economic Planning Sciences Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 43 Issue 4 Pages 221-228  
  Keywords CPA firms; Productivity growth; Technical progress; Efficiency change; SOX; DEA; Malmquist index; Big 4 firms  
  Abstract This paper investigates productivity growth, technical progress, and efficiency change for a group of the 56 largest CPA firms in the US from the period 1996-1999 through the period 2003-2006, where the former preceded, and the latter followed, enactment of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX). Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used to calculate Malmquist indices of three measures of interest: productivity growth, technical progress, and efficiency change. Results indicate that CPA firms, on average, experienced a productivity growth of approx. 17% from the pre- to post-SOX period. Consistent with the finding of Banker et al. [Banker RD, Chang H, Natarajan R. Productivity change, technical progress and relative efficiency change in the public accounting industry. Management Science 2005;51:291-304], this productivity gain can be attributed primarily to technical progress rather than a change in relative efficiency. In addition, results indicate that the “Big 4” firms underperformed their non-Big 4 counterparts in both productivity growth and technical progress.  
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  Notes Approved  
  Call Number Admin @ admin @ ChangChoyCooperParkerRuefli2009 Serial 4408  
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Author Banker, R.D.; Chang, H.; Natarajan, R. doi  openurl
  Title Estimating DEA technical and allocative inefficiency using aggregate cost or revenue data Type
  Year 2007 Publication Journal of Productivity Analysis Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages 115-121  
  Keywords Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA ); Aggregate cost data; Aggregate revenue data; Technical inefficiency; Allocative inefficiency; Public accounting  
  Abstract In this paper, we address the question of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) evaluation of efficiency when aggregate cost or revenue data must be used. We show that the DEA technical inefficiency measure using total revenues as the single output variable or total costs as the single input variable equals the aggregate technical and allocative inefficiency. We employ this result to estimate allocative inefficiency and construct statistical tests of the null hypothesis of no allocative inefficiency analogous to those of the null hypothesis of no scale inefficiency. We illustrate our method using revenue and personnel data for the top U.S. public accounting firms over 1995-1998. Our empirical results indicate the existence of statistically significant allocative inefficiency in the public accounting industry.  
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  Notes Approved  
  Call Number Admin @ admin @ BankerChangNatarajan2007 Serial 3645  
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Author Chang, H.; Mashruwala, R. doi  openurl
  Title Was the bell system a natural monopoly?: An application of data envelopment analysis Type
  Year 2006 Publication Annals of Operations Research Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 145 Issue 1 Pages 251-263  
  Keywords Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA ); Bell system; Returns to scale; Inefficiency  
  Abstract Examination of the relation between scale economies and natural monopoly has been a central issue in public policy research. The paper employs Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) methodology to re-examine the issue of natural monopoly for the Bell system with annual time series data for 1947 – 1977. Results from the DEA-based statistical tests reveal the prevalence of increasing returns to scale for the Bell system, implying that there were economies of scale for the Bell system. This evidence suggests that the Bell data was indeed consistent with a natural monopoly. Further, the results indicate that the low level of overall efficiency primarily results from allocative inefficiency rather than technical and scale inefficiency.  
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  Notes Approved  
  Call Number Admin @ admin @ ChangMashruwala2006 Serial 3268  
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Author Banker, R.D.; Chang, H. doi  openurl
  Title The super-efficiency procedure for outlier identification, not for ranking efficient units Type
  Year 2006 Publication European Journal of Operational Research Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 175 Issue 2 Pages 1311-1320  
  Keywords Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA ); Super-efficiency; Outlier identification; Efficiency ranking; Simulation study  
  Abstract In this paper, we conduct simulation experiments to evaluate the performance of two alternative uses of the super-efficiency procedure in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The first is for outlier identification and the second is for ranking efficient units. We find that the ranking procedure does not perform satisfactorily. In fact, the correlations between the true efficiency and the estimated super-efficiency are negative for the subset of efficient observations, and the conventional DEA model performs as well as the super-efficiency DEA model when all observations are considered. However, when data are contaminated with outliers, the use of the super-efficiency model to identify and remove outliers results in more accurate efficiency estimates than those obtained from the conventional DEA estimation model.  
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  Notes Approved  
  Call Number Admin @ admin @ BankerChang2006 Serial 3225  
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Author Banker, R.D.; Chang, H.; Natarajan, R. doi  openurl
  Title Productivity Change, Technical Progress, and Relative Efficiency Change in the Public Accounting Industry Type
  Year 2005 Publication Management Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 51 Issue 2 Pages 291-304  
  Keywords public accounting; productivity change; technical progress; relative efficiency; management advisory services; auditing; taxation services  
  Abstract We present evidence on components of productivity change in the public accounting industry toward the end of the 20th century. Using revenue and human resource data from 64 of the 100 largest public accounting firms in the United States for the 1995–1999 period, we analyze productivity change, technical progress, and relative efficiency change over time. The average public accounting firm experienced a productivity growth of 9.5% between 1995 and 1999. We find support for the hypothesis that technical progress rather than an improvement in relative efficiency was the reason for this productivity growth. Firms that were early movers into management advisory services (MAS) and those that emphasized growth in MAS over growth in the traditional audit and tax services enjoyed significantly higher productivity growth than their peers. These firms also contributed significantly more to the industry’s technical progress.  
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  Notes Approved  
  Call Number Admin @ admin @ BankerChangNatarajan2005 Serial 2862  
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Author Chang, H.; Cheng, M.-A.; Das, S. doi  openurl
  Title Hospital Ownership and Operating Efficiency: Evidence from Taiwan Type
  Year 2004 Publication European Journal of Operational Research Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 159 Issue 2 Pages 513-527  
  Keywords Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA ); Health care; Health services; Hospital ownership; National health insurance; Operating efficiency  
  Abstract This paper employs the non-parametric data envelopment analysis to document empirical evidence on the relationship between hospital ownership and operating efficiency using annual cross-sectional data on Taiwan hospitals over the period 1996-1997. Hospitals within the same category are compared on the basis of their relative efficiency. Conventional and data-envelopment-analysis-based test procedures are employed to test for efficiency differences between public and private hospitals. The statistical test results indicate that, in general, public hospitals are less efficient than private hospitals for both regional and district hospitals. Specifically, we provide evidence that private hospitals without intensive-care units outperform their public counterparts.  
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  Notes Approved  
  Call Number Admin @ admin @ ChangChengDas2004 Serial 2565  
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Author Chang, H.; Chang, W.-J.; Das, S.; Li, S.-H. doi  openurl
  Title Health care regulation and the operating efficiency of hospitals: Evidence from Taiwan Type
  Year 2004 Publication Journal of Accounting and Public Policy Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 23 Issue 6 Pages 483-510  
  Keywords Hospital; Efficiency; DEA; NHI  
  Abstract Using data from the Annual Survey of Hospitals compiled by the Department of Health in Taiwan for years 1994 through 1997, we employed Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to evaluate the impact of a National Health Insurance (NHI) Program on the operating efficiency of district hospitals in Taiwan. We find that, on average, efficiency of district hospitals in Taiwan decreased following the implementation of the NHI Program. Our results are robust to the inclusion of control variables that have been shown to affect hospital operating performance in prior research, and alternative efficiency measurements.  
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  Notes Approved  
  Call Number Admin @ admin @ ChangChangDasLi2004 Serial 2564  
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